Alternative Energies

Professor : Antoine Bret (click to send an e-mail)




(Tentative) Schedule
Thursday, 9h30 - 11h30
Friday, 10h30 - 12h30
NO lectures on November 3 and 4
NO lectures on December 9

Evaluation
Reports of Practice (45%) + Final Exam (40%) + Presentation (15%) - Guidelines for the Talks - Planning of the Talks
3 mandatory practices - Reports are due 1 month later:
Friday, October 7
Thursday, October 27
Thursday, November 24

I. Introduction

What is the problem?
Climate, Energy... The broad perspective (PowerPoint)
Necessary and possible evolution of production and oil prices
Energy and Human Development Index
Energy and climate: a global perspective (YouTube) - Synthesis of the course in 1 hour.

Acquire your own view
Think globally
Who are the experts ?
Examples of errors in medias - More bugs
Peer-reviewed journals
Database "ISI Web of Knowledge" (requires subscription - accessible from the school, or from home through the UCLM Virtual Private Network)
NASA/Harvard database (free)

Why arguing when you can compute?

Slides
World population - maximum global population - Fertility and consumption - Prices and consumption
Internet Links
Correlation is NOT causation
United Nations Statistic Division - Fantastic Statistics: http://www.gapminder.org/

II. Fossil Fuels

Uses and resources
James Watt - Fossil Unit - US passenger travel per capita per day by all modes - Consumption since 1860 - Consumption/capita (toe and slaves eq.) - Concern for Gasoline
Finite resources, Hubbert curve
World production and discoveries - Exponential growth - Hubbert Model & US Production - Model Hubbert and the world - Fossil Fuels Peaks
Pollution
CO2 pollution from 1800 - Composition of the atmosphere - Global emissions of CO2 by Sector

Internet Links
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Oil Price - Association for the Study of Peak Oil (ASPO) - ASPO Spain
Documents
Presentation "CO2 Capture and Confinement" -


III. Climate Science

Climate and Weather - Example from Paris, France

Climate change observation
Main indicators
Leading Indicators (NASA) - Leading Indicators (Hadley Center) - Dates of harvests in Burgundy (France) vs. Temperatures from 1370

Basic energy balance
Temperatures of the solar system planets - Why the greenhouse effect?

Elements of climate modeling
Climate Models - Sample cut land + oceans + atmosphere system in cells of finite size - Models to the Test I - Models to the Test II
Calculations with/without Emissions - Models vs. Observations

Source of change
Milankovitch Cycles - Solar Activity and Temperature - Sunspots and solar radiation - CO2, CH4 and Temperature since 800 000 years
CO2 and CH4 since year 1000 - O2 and 13C decreasing concentrations - 14C decreasing concentrations - Computed CO2 concentration vs. measurements

Human emissions
Global GHG emissions by sector - Emissions Europe and the U.S. based on 1990 - Cumulative Emissions since 2009 Emissions - Emissions and Economic Growth
Simulations for the XXI Century - Impact on Europe
Who's emitting lately ?

The Kyoto Protocol
Balance Kyoto Europe - July 25, 1997 Vote of the U.S. Senate against the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol (Admin Clinton-Gore).

Consequences of climate change and mitigation scenarios
Are +5 degrees a big deal? - Scenario OECD

Why melting Arctic doesn't rise sea level (YouTube)

Slides Proof of Global Warming (joke)

Internet Links
IPCC Reports

Global Mean Temperature (NASA) - CO2 Concentration - Scientific consensus - Nature article on Milankovitch Cycles
Biography (Google translation) of Claude Lorius, who had the idea of looking at bubbles trapped in old ice (the Whisky story is here !)
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
"Stern Report" on the economic cost of climate change
Database on the composition of atmosphere

Past Temperatures: Mann 1998, from 1400 (pdf file here) - Mann 1999, from 1000 (pdf file here) - IPCC Report 2007 (from 700) - IPCC Report 2014 (2000 last years)
Temperatures since 500 million years (Wikipedia)

Documents
BOOK: A Climate Modelling Primer (K. Mc Guffie & A. Henderson- Sellers)
Report compliance with Kyoto in Europe (2005)

Summary of 2014 IPCC Report, with details for Spain

IV. Storing Energy and Carbon: Hydrogen, Sequestration...

Energy sources or containers: only four types
Energy Reservoirs - Storing Energy - Hydrogen production techniques and yields - Storage in Batteries - H2 Tank Leakage
Storing carbon
Sequestration - Planting Trees

Documents - Towards the hydrogen economy? (Antonio G. Garcia-Conde) - IEA Report 2005 "Prospects for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells" (PDF, 1.8 MB)

Internet Links
Spanish Hydrogen Association - 2013 Seminar by Ernesto Amores (CNH2): The Hydrogen Cycle

V. Wind Energy


Introduction: Physical Bases
Power Curve - The Betz Function - Elements of calculation - Angular Losses - Comparison Data/Formula
Mills Spacing in a wind field
Number of turbines to replace a 1GW plant - Kilometers of turbines to replace a 1GW plant - Figures for the world - Wind map for Europe
Intermittent production
Daily production in 2009, Middelgrunden Park (Denmark) - Management of wind intermittency - Large scale intermittency
Wind turbines
Rendering of a wind turbine - wind turbines Market - World production - The size of a modern wind turbine
Wind power in Spain
Wind power in Spain - IEA Wind Energy Annual Report 2004

Internet Links
Wind Maps by Autonomous Communities of Spain - World Database - Danish Wind Industry Association - European Wind Atlas
Wind turbines Manufacturers Vestas - Gamesa - Enercon - GE Wind - Siemens - Repower - IEA Wind Power Reports - Wind Energy Documents Database

V. Solar Energy


Introduction
How much solar energy reaches the earth?
Solar Thermal: Heat a fluid (liquid or gas)
Photovoltaic conversion
World and in Spain

Slides
Calculation of the solar power reaching Earth - Solar radiation in Europe
Solar Thermal Energy - SEGS Plants - Central Tower PS10, Seville - Torre "Solar Two", California - Solar and Fireplace Disco - Solar collector
Electricity demand and solar radiation - Solar Energy in Spain - Solar and Renewable Electricity in the world - Yields experimental photovoltaic cells - solar panels on roofs
Documents
"Solar Two" tower, California - Giant solar tower project
Internet Links
Solar Tower Sevilla - Plataforma Solar de Almeria


VII. Biomass, hydropower, geothermal


Biomass
Basics
Does it emit CO2? Yes, but...
Orders of magnitude
Biomass in Spain
Hydropower
Geothermal Energy

Slides
Photosynthesis Yield - Yield for various crops - Hydropower in Spain
Geothermal Plant - Geothermal in the World
Documents
Report biofuels 1 (in French) - Report biofuels 2 (in French) - Presentation by M. Lapuerta in 2005 - IEA Geothermal Energy Annual Report 2004 - IEA Biofuels 2004
Internet Links
State of Spanish reservoirs - Hispagua (Spanish System of Water Information) - IEA Geothermal Energy - International Geothermal Association

VIII. Nuclear Energy - Fission


Introduction
Concepts of nuclear physics
Binding energy
Possibility of drawing energy from nuclear reactions
Controlled fission
Radioactive decay
Reserves of Uranium
Nuclear in Spain

Slides
Table of nuclei - Nuclei Stability - Binding Energy (Z , N) - Example of disintegration Chain
Nuclei for controlled fission - Typical nuclear plant - Spanish Plants

Additional Slides
Weizsacker (Z, N) - Weizsacker (A) - Binding Energies of the nuclei (A)

Internet Links
Natural Reactor Oklo (Gabon) - International Atomic Energy Agency - Nuclear Energy (Wikipedia).

IX. Thermonuclear Fusion


Energy gain in fusion reactions
Energy requirements to overcome the Coulomb barrier
Lawson criterion
Magnetic confinement, JET, Tore Supra, ITER, DEMO
Inertial confinement, NIF & LMJ

Slides
Nuclear potential - Fusion with DT - Lawson criterion - Dimensions of inertial fusion target - Collecting energy
National Ignition Facility - Laser Megajoule - ITER
ITER Fly-through (YouTube)

Additional Slides
Fusion Cross Sections for DT, DD, DHe3 - Target for inertial fusion - Four cycles engine - Power Plants - Reaction chamber

Documents
PowerPoint Presentation: Turbo Course on Fusion


Summary Table: generating the 2010 world energy production


X. Limitations and hazards


The EROI (Energy Return on Investment)
Energy source = concentrated energy = danger
Kinetic energy, cars (WHO)
Gravitational potential energy (Dam failures)
Electromagnetic potential energy (oil + coal mine industry)
Nuclear potential energy (List of criticality accidents and incidents)
Fission products - Radioactivity generated by a plant - Pollution fission/fusion - Radioactivity of light nuclei
Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Fukushima - Chernobyl and Three Mile Island - Cancer and radioactivity

Additional Slides
Waste hazards - Management of radioactive waste - Penetration of radiations
Documents
Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-economic Impacts (IAEA) - Fukushima (Video)
Internet Links
Radioactive wastes (Wikipedia)
Three Mile Island (Wikipedia)
Effects of Chernobyl: World Health Report 2005 - Effects of Chernobyl: Chernobyl Report 2006 World Health Organization - UNSCEAR Report on Fukushima


XI. Lessons from History


When things went wrong
Easter Island. From Jared Diamond's book Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive
How humans colonized Earth - Earth from afar - Easter Island - The Island 360

When things could have gone well
Vikings and Eskimos in Greenland
Vikings' Expansion - L'Anse aux Meadows (Newfoundland) - Viking archaeological site in North America ( Google Maps)
Eastern Settlement (Church, Google Maps) - Western Settlement (Google Maps)

When things went well
The Ozone layer
Ozone layer - Emissions from CFC - concentrations and CF12 CF11
Alternative Fluorcarbon Environmental Acceptability Study - Ozone Layer (Wikipedia)

XII. Conclusion

The Report of the Club of Rome (PowerPoint)




Practices and Case Studies

1. The debate on climate change and its human origin: Instructions
2. Climate science: The Energy Balance: Instructions - Excel File - More elaborated program (2.2 MB - comes with "A Climate Modelling Primer") - Abrupt climate changes (in English)
3. Wind Power in Spain: Instructions
4. Energy Scenarios for Spain: Excel File - Instructions

Exams from previous years

2011: Part I (correction) - Part II (correction) - Part III (correction) - Ordinary Squad (correction)
2013: Convocatoria Ordinaria - correction
2013-2014: Convocatoria Ordinaria - correction

Conferences given at UCLM

2005: Solar energy, a potential alternative in Castilla la Mancha - Conference F. Rueda (Iberdrola) at UCLM April 2005
2005: UCLM conference on wind power
2007: Uncertainty of data and forecasts for fossil fuels, Conference Jean Laherrere on oil, UCLM, 24/04/2007
2008: Conference of Prof. Velikovich (PowerPoint, 32 MB, UCLM ETSII, 24/04/2008). The pathway to inertial fusion energy
2009: Roundtable "La Energia a Debate", UCLM ETSII, 16 April 2009 (Spanish). Energias Renovables - Manuel Romero Alvarez - Energia Nuclear - Enrique M. Gonzalez-Romero - Los Combustibles Fosiles, Imprescindibles en la sociedad del futuro - Juan Otero de Becerra - Energia de fusion nuclear: Presente y perspectivas - Carlos Hidalgo
2015: Photovoltaic power, a real alternative for present, Alberto Bravo Garcia, 26/11/2015

Links and documents of general interest

Documents
Energy Statistics Eurostat 1999-2004
Renewable energy in Spain - 1998-2003 Statistics (Eurostat)
Key Statistics 2005 OECD (IEA)
Worldwide Renewable Electricity Production
U.S. Pentagon Report (Consequences of warming)

Internet Links
Red Electrica de Spain
Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy
National Renewable Energy Centre
Association of Renewable Energy Producers
National Institute of Statistics
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy
Spanish Electricity Industry Association (unESA)
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Stat Bank of Denmark
Energynet (Denmark)
European Commission, DG - Joint Research Centre Institute for Environment and Sustainability
Accidents Industrial (UN)
BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2005
International Energy Agency